When training for strength, high loads produce larger gains in 1RM strength (at least in the short term), with the relative advantage of high loads increasing with training status. Isometric strength gain doesn’t seem to be strongly influenced by loading intensity, which hints that low-load training actually leads to similar increases in the muscles’ ability to produce force. Hypertrophy is similar regardless of loading, as long as sets are taken to failure. From a practical standpoint, though, “moderate” loads are generally tolerated better than low loads.
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Source: Strength and Hypertrophy Adaptations Between Low- vs. High-Load Resistance Training: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002200.