In a recent study, performing the entirety of one’s strength training in a single session versus splitting it up into three sessions per training day didn’t affect gains in lean body mass, upper body strength, or upper body anaerobic fitness.
It’s possible that multiple training sessions per day may lead to larger strength gains and simply be more feasible when per-session training loads start to become very challenging. However, when training sessions are still manageable, splitting them into multiple daily sessions is unlikely to lead to larger strength gains. For most people, training once per day versus multiple times per day should simply be a decision based on preference and practicality.
Whether you do all of your training in a single session or split it up into multiple
sessions throughout a day depends primarily on feasibility and practicality.
It may be beneficial to split very challenging workouts into multiple daily sessions if your schedule permits, but there’s likely not a big advantage if you can comfortably do all of your training in a single session.
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Source: Effects of Single versus Multiple Bouts of Resistance Training on Maximal Strength and Anaerobic Performance. DOI: 10.1515/hukin-2017-0122